Ahsraf Akawi, Mitchell Schertz, Vicky Myers, Muhammad Mahajna
To examine the socio-demographic characteristic of children with non syndromic ID of Israeli Arab ethnicity
Prevalence of Intellectual Disability (ID) in children of Israeli Arab ethnicity is almost twice as high as that of Israeli Jews yet lower than children in Arab countries. While sociodemographic factors have been noted as risk factors for ID, limited data exists for the Israeli Arab population.
Retrospective chart review from two child development centers of all children seen between years 2010-2014 with ID defined as MDI < 50 or Full Scale IQ<70. Children with a history of perinatal complications/prematurity/IUGR or known genetic syndromes were excluded.
Cohort consisted of 96 children (35 (63.5%) boys) with age at diagnosis of mean(SD) 4.35 (1.83) years, range 1.1-10 years. IQ was 50.4(14.4), range 10-68. 33% had IQ <70; 47% had IQ≤59; 5% had IQ≤39 and 14.6% had IQ≤29.
Age (years) of parent at birth of child was 29(6.5) for mother and 35(8) for father. 34.4% of mothers worked outside the home and 24% of fathers were unemployed.
Number of children per family was 3.4 (range 1-12). 97% of parents were married.
Twenty percent of children had consanguineous parents of differing degrees (1st to 3rd degree) with 14.6% of parents being first cousins. One third of children had some kind of ID among their siblings. Fifteen percent reported retardation of siblings.
No correlation found between degree of ID and any of the sociodemographic factors noted..
Findings of lower paternal but not maternal education and unemployment and high rates of consanguinity and sibling disability were found in this cohort but were not related to degree of ID. Sociodemographic characteristics may provide insight into mechanisms of ID in the Israeli Arab population.