Iris Morag1, Orit Bart2, Raanan Raz3, Shira Shayevitz2, Tzipora Strauss1, Jacob Kuint1, Lidia Gabis 3
1 Department of Neonatology, The Edmond and Lily Safra Children's Hospital, Sheba, Tel Hashomer, Israel.
2 Department of Occupational Therapy, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
3 The Weinberg Child Development Center, The Edmond and Lily Safra Children's Hospital, Sheba, Tel Hashomer, Israel.
Running title: Developmental outcomes of late preterm infants
To longitudinally assess neurodevelopmental, sensory modulation and participation characteristics of Late Preterm Infants (LPI) at 12 month corrected age and to investigate for perinatal conditions that may affect these outcomes.
Methods: The study population comprised of 124 LPI, born at Sheba Medical Center between January and August 2008. Thirty-three term infants (TI) were recruited for comparison. At 12 month chronological age the following evaluation were done: The Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS), test of sensory functions in infants (TSFI) and sesnsory profile, and the infant/toddler sensory profile. Assessment of participation and parental satisfaction was assessed using questionnaires. Maternal and neonatal covariates, potentially associated with low developmental scores, were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression models.
Results: At chronological age of twelve months, LPI performed significantly lower than TI on all Griffiths subscales, but when scores were corrected for post conception age, developmental scores were comparable. In a multivariate model of logistic regression, male gender, emergent cesarean section and higher maternal education (>14 years) were found to be associated with increased risk for lower developmental scores at 12 month of age in LPI.
Term infants had better sensory modulation than LPI. Lower scores were associated with lower gestational age and smaller circumference. LPI participation and parental satisfaction were also lower in LPI compared to term infants.
Conclusions: LPI do not complete their neurodevelopmental maturation by the first year of life. Males and those born after emergent cesarean section are at increased risk for lower developmental scores. Sensory modulation, participation, and parental satisfaction 12 month are also lower in LPI compared to TI.
Correction of age to term birth in LPI may still be needed at this age.
Key words: Late preterm, development, risk factors, outcome